Reference ranges

Feng LM et al 2014. Evaluation of lipoprotein-associated Phospholipase A2 in Healthy Chinese Han Adult Serum. Lipids in Health and Disease; 13:6.

General Lp-PLA2 literature

Caslake MJ et al 2000. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase: a potential new risk factor for coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis;150(2): 413-419.

Stafforini DM et al 1999. Molecular basis of the interaction between plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase and low density lipoprotein. J Biol Chem;274:7018-24.

Wilensky RL et al 2008. Inhibition of Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 reduces complexcoronary atherosclerotic plaque development. Nat Med;14:1059-66.

Vickers KC et al 2009. Relationship of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 and Oxidited Low-Density Lipoprotein in Carotid Atherosclerosis. JLR;50(9):1735-44.

Zalewski A and Macphee C 2005. Role of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in atherosclerosis: biology, epidemiology, and possible therapeutic target. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol;25:923-31.

Caslake MJ and  Packard CJ 2003. Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 (platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase) and cardiovascular disease. Curr Opin Lipidol;14:347-52.

Packard CJ et al 2000. Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 as an independent predictor of coronary heart disease. West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med;343:1148-55.

Garza CA et al 2007. Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 and cardiovascular disease: a systemic review. Association between Mayo Clin Proc;82:159-65.

Kaminsky LA and Ozmek C 2012.Diurnal variation in lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2). Clin Biochem;45(9):700-702.

Value and limitation of existing CVS risk assessment

Castelli WP 1996. Lipids, risk factors and ischaemic heart disease. Atherosclerosis; 124 Suppl:1-9.

Atherosclerotic plaques and Lp-PLA2

Kolodgie FD et al 2006. Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 expression in the natural progression of human coronary atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol;26:2523-29.

Mannheim D et al 2008. Enhanced expression of Lp-PLA2 and lysophosphatidylcholine in symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaques.

Frank D et al 2006. Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Protein Expression in the Natural Progression of Human Coronary Atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol;26:2523-2529.

Lp-PLA2 studies

Mirshad P. V., Jithesh T. K., Jaideep Mahendra, Prema Gurumurthy, Lipoprotein Associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) as an Emerging Cardiovascular Marker, American Journal of Biochemistry, Vol. 7 No. 3, 2017, pp. 47-53.

Wang D, Guo X, Hou L, Cheng X, You T, Li H, Xia L, Yin Y, Yu S, Qiu L. Measuring lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity in China: Protocol comparison and recalibration. J Clin Lab Anal. 2019 Jan;33(1):e22628. doi: 10.1002/jcla.22628. Epub 2018 Jul 24. PMID: 30043502; PMCID: PMC6430350.

The Lp-PLA2 Studies Collaboration: Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 and risk of coronary disease, stroke, and mortality: collaborative analysis of 32 prospective studies. Lancet 2010;375:1536-44. Biol;27:1788-1795.

The Lp-PLA2 Studies Colaboration. Collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from observational studies of Lp-PLA2 and cardiovascular diseases. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2007;14:3-11.

Caslake MJ et al. 2010. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, inflammatory biomarkers, and risk of cardiovascular disease in the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER). Atherosclerosis;210(1):28-34.

Kiechl S et al 2007. Oxidized Phospholipids, Lipoprotein(a), Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Activity, and 10-Year Cardiovascular Outcomes: Prospective Results From the Bruneck Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol;27:1788-1795.

Moeckel M et al. 2007 - The North Wuerttemberg and Berlin Infarction Study-II (NOBIS-II). Lipoprotein-associated phopolipase A2 for early risk stratification in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome: a multi-marker approach. Clin Res Cardiol 96:1-9.

Cholesterol efflux to high density lipoproteins (HDL) in plasma does not reflect cardiovascular risk


An enzymatic Lp-PLA2 assay for fully automated analysis


Lp-PLA2 - mass vs activity

Persson M et al 2007. Elevated Lp-PLA2 Levels Add Prognostic Information of the Metabolic Syndrome on Incidence of Cardiovascular Events Among Middle-Aged Nondiabteic Subjects. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol;27:1411-1416.

O'Donoghue M et al 2006. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and its association with cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes in the PROVE IT-TIMI 22 (PRavastatin Or atorVastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) trial. Circulation;113(14):1745-52.

Racial variation

Lee KK et al 2011. Racial variation in lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in older adults. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders;11:38.

Brilakis ES et al 2008. Influence of Race and Sex on Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Levels: Observations from the Dallas Heart Study. Atherosclerosis;199(1):110-115.

Hoffmann MM et al 2009. Genetic variants and haplotypes of  Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and their influence on cardiovascular disease (The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascukar Helath Study). J Thromb Haemost;7:41-48. 

Therapeutic action studies – effects on Lp-PLA2

Muhlestein JB et al 2006. The Reduction of Inflammatory Biomarkers by Statin, Fibrate, and Combination Therapy Among Diabetic Patients With Mixed Dyslipidemia. J Am CollCardiol;48:396-401.

Winkler K et al 2004. Fluvastatin Slow-Release Lowers Platelet-Activating Factor Acetyl Hydrolase Activity: A Placebo-Controlled Trial in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab;89:1153-1159.

Albert MA et al 2005. The Effectof Statin Therapy on Lipoprotein Associated Phospholipase A2 Levels. Atherosclerosis;182:193-198.

Schaefer EJ et al 2005. Effects of Atorvastatin Versus Other Statins on Fasting and Postprandial C-Reactive Protein and Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 in Patients With CoronaryHeart Disease Versus Control Subjects. Am J Cardiol;95:1025-1032.

Vasilios G et al 2007. Differential Effect of Hypolipidemic Drugs on Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2.  Arterioscler Throm Vasc Biol;27:2236-2243.